Properties of Lévy Processes

Lévy processes, which are defined as having stationary and independent increments, were introduced in the previous post. It was seen that the distribution of a d-dimensional Lévy process X is determined by the characteristics {(\Sigma,b,\nu)} via the Lévy-Khintchine formula,

\displaystyle  \setlength\arraycolsep{2pt} \begin{array}{rl} &\displaystyle{\mathbb E}\left[e^{ia\cdot (X_t-X_0)}\right] = \exp(t\psi(a)),\smallskip\\ &\displaystyle\psi(a)=ia\cdot b-\frac12a^{\rm T}\Sigma a+\int_{{\mathbb R}^d}\left(e^{ia\cdot x}-1-\frac{ia\cdot x}{1+\Vert x\Vert}\right)\,d\nu(x). \end{array}

(1)

The positive semidefinite matrix {\Sigma} describes the Brownian motion component of X, b is a drift term, and {\nu} is a measure on {{\mathbb R}^d} such that {\nu(A)} is the rate at which jumps {\Delta X\in A} of X occur. Then, equation (1) gives us the characteristic function of the increments of the process.

In the current post, I will investigate some of the properties of such processes, and how they are related to the characteristics. In particular, we will be concerned with pathwise properties of X. It is known that Brownian motion and Cauchy processes have infinite variation in every nonempty time interval, whereas other Lévy processes — such as the Poisson process — are piecewise constant, only jumping at a discrete set of times. There are also purely discontinuous Lévy processes which have infinitely many discontinuities, yet are of finite variation, on every interval (e.g., the gamma process). Continue reading “Properties of Lévy Processes”